Cosmology needs radical reconstruction because is based on false hypotheses. The false hypotheses gave birth to false theories, and all this mess is caused due to lack of imagination of what time is. Contemporary Cosmology is abundant in myths that became rooted over 100 years ago and is unable to perform a baby's step forward. Summing up, physics should let Relativity down without any further delay in order to move a step in proper direction. Relativity is based on hypotheses and theories which cannot be considered as laws of physics as long as they remain hypotheses and theories.
Surrounding us reality cannot properly be described without knowing of what time is. When theories on Relativity were born, imagination of what time was, had been (and happens, that still is) entirely false. Time originated along with the birth of matter. To the false physical hypotheses belong the following ones – and almost all of them are connected with time:
1. Dilation of time
2. Relativity of time
3. Time travel
4. Arrow of time
6. Time dimension
7. Relativity of space
8. State of singularity of the universe
In order to formulate hypotheses and theories in connection with time, it was indispensable to describe it somehow, otherwise all endeavours to produce probable hypotheses as well as theories had to turn out false. The abstract notion of time, setting aside of course, its colloquial and convenient ambiguities, belongs to the basic ones and there is no possibility to to bring it nearer without using other than synonymous ideas. Time has mixed itself in its ambiguities. To separate it from multi-meaning traps, it was necessary to filter off couple of its ambiguities that are also applied in physics. Amongst them are:
1. time as motion
2. time as measuring, or already measured
3.time as unit of measure.
Now it is sufficient to prove that time is nothing else but motion. Proving it we must reject all hypotheses and theories, which were based on false imagination of it, consisting on belief that time is flowing and connected with space. What, therefore, time is? According to my definition: Time is the motion of anything in relation to anything. Also: Time is the motion of any form of matter in relation to any form of matter. As it appears, time cannot slow down its motion, because time is not a body and spontaneously doesn't exist. Time relating to individual forms of matter can be named “individual” and to the beginning of the universe can be named “initial”. Why time is the motion? It's very simple. We can convince ourselves about it by means of two ways:
1. Similarly as:
- Temperature i measured with temperature.
- Pressure is measured with pressure.
- Length is measured with length.
- Time is measured with motion, and as it is the same, motion is measured with time.
There is no such a possibility to express time (motion) in any other way, substituting its synonyms by any other meaning. If it would be possible, it could mean that time might be something else, appearing spontaneously in nature, but this is impossible. There is no proof that it has been confirmed.
2. We can carry out the following thought experiment:
Let's admit that there is a sorcerer having the might to freeze the universe in a such way that all motion stops. Would it be then possible to measure time between any bodies? The answer is obvious. No motion = no time.
Time does of course exist because motion does exist. Time is matter's attribute because is indissolubly connected with matter. Obviously coining a word “matter-time” doesn't make any sense. Now when we realize what time is, we are in position to set to proper description of surrounding us reality. I dare say that all experiments aiming at confirmation of the alleged dilation of time are false in spite of correctness of mathematical calculations. Time is always a local matter, and none reference frame makes any sense. The next wrong interpretation of time was mixing time with clock during the experiment with caesium clocks. Here, clocks were identified with time, whereas they were just bodies in the above experiment, and, likewise all bodies undergo changes in various conditions. There is no need to discuss all numerous experiments allegedly confirming so-called, alleged, dilation of time. They are not proved in macro-scale and they will also be false in micro-scale, e.g. observation of prolonged life of muons. This explanation must be found, but definitely not on the basis of dilation of time, because it's impossible to dilate motion. Now, there might appear a question what motion is, because such an idea exists separately to time. In my definition of motion, which is a roundabout, synonymous and tautological definition of time: motion is changing of anything's position in relation to anything, also: motion is changing position of any form of matter in relation to any form of matter. All these definitions are aiming at giving a clear idea on the events where time is involved. In these cases we have to get over the synonyms of time involved in description of ideas, because there seem no simpler and clearer explanations to be found. From comprehension of time as above described, there appears that:
There is not possible dilation of time, because there is not possible to dilate motion, which is a function of velocity of a body. Let's analyse the famous thought experiment with the observer:
t1 – factual time
t2 – dilated time
Assumption: t2 > t1
Factual event: t1 = s1 / v1
Event observed: t2 = s1 / v1
As it results from the above set of equations t1 = t2 and this is in contradiction to the assumption, and means, dilation of time doesn't appear.
There is no relativity of time, because neither motion of a body, nor its speed depend on observer's location.
Time travel is impossible, because there is no possibility of travelling in motion.
Arrow of time does not exist as there is no one direction of motion of matter. We can take into consideration direction of motion of a concrete body only, but not one motion in general, as such does not exists.
Space-time doesn't exist, because motion cannot be coupled with space. If we want to take into consideration motion, we must indicate anything that is moving. Motion or time cannot inhabit space, because it spontaneously does not exist.
Time dimension does not exist, because motion of any body means that the said body is “forced“ to take any amongst three dimensions. By the way, where we should look for time dimension in a solid body?
About matter generally we know everything what contemporary physics has given us on the plate, but there is a question to discuss. The point is in magnetic field. Everyone knows the way the magnetic field manifests. The question is: What is magnetic field indeed? It's definitely not a spatial property. Space is landlord and magnetic field is one of its tenants. I consider that magnetic field belongs to micro-forms of matter. The problem is that there is not such a tool in possession of contemporary physics to enter such a subtlety of the micro-world. Would it be enough to examine forms of matter of a range 10-70 cm of diameter? Nobody knows, but this is the scale we should take into consideration. Matter's attribute is a constant motion. Matter was created from primordial energy of primordial space. Matter was born from condensed energy, of which oscillating motion was changed into rotational one. This rotational motion is the strongest glue of all forms of matter. The simplest forms of matter rotate in more complex ways. Quantum Mechanics describing micro-world by means of Relativity must definitely be false. There should be applied other solutions to examine this unattainable by science world. In physics everything is explicable, but humanity is not ready yet to face this challenge and reveal all mysteries of nature.
Primordial oscillating, homogeneous, energy, the basic component of the material world, was, and is contained in primordial three dimensional space. Energy is filling up entire universe. The material part of the universe was created from primordial energy. For the time being we can only speculate on this final, unattainable by science link of nature that led to development of the highest organized form of matter ever known, which is human being. Energy constitutes the counterbalance to the material part of the universe. If primordial energy of space was in some oscillating motion, so such motion neutralises itself, because energy performed movements “step forwards, step backwards”. That means it did the way +1, -1 or else 0. What was time in such case? As t = s/v, and t = 0, and, 0/any “v”gives 0, so, we can admit in this instance so called “timelessness”.
Primordial, three-dimensional, energetic space, constitutes finite volume of the universe. Without space nothing could exist. The volume of space doesn't undergo any changes, but its state of energy and matter undergoes constant ones. Omnipresent space is indestructible, doesn't undergo any strain. So-called gravitational lensing is nothing else but curvature of its contents. Material part of the universe is balanced by the volume of the energetic space. Its subatomic structure is unknown, and as long as science doesn't give answer on build-up of space, the existence of the so called ether must not be excluded. Space cannot be coupled with time. Its attribute is energy. Beyond space is dimensionless nothingness. There is no transitional state of space with its frontier with dimensionless nothingness, as there no exist half-space, quarter-space or any fraction of it. Relativity of space is impossible once falseness of relativity of time was proved.
- The universe is finite. According to my speculative calculations, diameter of the universe should be minimum 1.5 x 10137 light years. WIMPs are still hypothetical and cannot be taken into consideration. So, such an unimaginable volume of energetic space would be necessary to balance material part of the universe. Let's take radius of the observable part of the universe around 1.5 billion of light years, mass of the universe amounting to 1079 g and mass of photon equal 10-48 g. Calculation is carried out on the basis of the following proportions: 1.5 x 109 : 10-48 = x : 1079. Result is 1.5 x 10136. We may speculate that there is a lighter fundamental brick of nature, hence the final result figures out 1.5 x 10137 light years. The universe probably resembles roughly a globular cluster, e.g. M13 in Hercules. The difference in similarity between galaxy and such a form of the universe (putting aside their structure) consists on lack of possibility to see small universes (I call such formations “small universes” - further “smallverses” due to lack of appropriate onomastics, nevertheless such a word has already been coined), because of distances between them exceeding feasibility of reaching each other by light. In order we could say something about appearance of the universe we should make first a trip for at least 40 billion of light years in any direction.
- Beyond the universe nothing exists. That means there is no space beyond it.
- The universe spreads farther than we can penetrate it. Noticeable acceleration of galaxies must be caused by huge masses which cannot be seen, and not by mysterious “great attractor”.
- The universe doesn't expand.
- The universe must rotate. Big clusters of matter rotate around larger masses, as such are the laws of physics. We cannot observe its rotation because we are far off its axis.
- The universe was delivered by primordial, energetic space, and not by its singularity state as nothing could exist without space. Moreover, there is no rational explanation of forces that were able to compress the matter to such a microscopic point. The universe originated from a condensed energy, by changing its oscillating motion to rotating one. The "excessive" energy (or maybe such condensation of energy was unavoidable) was converted into matter which is in counterbalance to energetic space. The condensed energy of space initiated an avalanching creation of the simplest particles, which started to combine with themselves leading to creation of the most simple element, hydrogen. There were created numberless, gigantic whirling hydrogen clouds of the mass approximately equal to the present-day universe. After reaching critical points as a result of increasing density, owing to rotational motion, these protostars exploded and scattered their masses, leading to creation of smallverses resembling our one. I'd like to stress that the universe is obviously one thing and its name refers to its entirety.
- The axis of the universe goes through its biggest mass and is not a fixed one.
- Dispersed smallverses with their galaxies will bump, concentrate and explode without the possibility of winding-up as one object. The universe will probably exist for ever, undergoing evolutionary changes.
The above description of the universe presents my own view with which nobody has to agree. I am fully aware that this description doesn't give answer to endless questions involved, but if true, sets the course in proper direction for investigations of the universe.